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# Author: josephpalazzo1946

## Three laws of kinematics are identified. The first two were already known, and are presented with a slightly different perspective. However, the third law of kinematics is a new law of nature. And it states: for every elastic collisions, a free body with the higher kinetic energy can only gain energy from another body with lower kinetic energy, and the lower kinetic energy body will always gain energy from the higher kinetic energy body. Moreover, under general considerations from the theory of Special Relativity, a particle can decay into other particles only if there is a source of positive energy necessary to insure that the new particles have positive kinetic energy, which is why E=mc2 provides the source of this positive energy in the form of mass conversion into energy. Also this new kinematics leads to the reformulation of the 2nd law of thermodynamics which can now explain why heat only flows from a hot body to a cold body, and never the other way around, that a system left on its own will see its disorder increase in time, and that the entropy as defined according to Boltzmann tends to increase. The insight that we gain from this deeper concept which underlies the new law of kinematics and the reformulation of the second law of thermodynamics is that vacuum energy is a necessary condition for particles to pop out of the vacuum. However, this spells trouble for Hawking radiation as it has been formulated – it would lead to a violation of this new kinematics law. Surprisingly this new law of kinematics also sheds new insights into Planck’s ad hoc hypothesis, E = ħω, and why energy must be quantized. As a general conclusion, every dynamical theory must reconcile with this new kinematics.

## In the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, there were four major mistakes done at different levels: (1)A misinterpretation of Bell’s theorem in which the original intent did not include non-locality, but as a test to see whether or not a particle has a certain property that can be measured. (2)A misinterpretation of the disagreement between Einstein and Bohr. Einstein’s objection to the collapse of the wave function implied a spooky action at a distance, while Bohr insisted on the instantaneous collapse of the wave function which he mistook to be a real wave. (3)A misinterpretation that the wave function represents a real wave when in actuality it represents the possible states of a quantum system before a measurement. (4)When Bell’s theorem was violated by a quantum system, those violations were misinterpreted as evidence of an instantaneous collapse of the wave function and non-locality. We will argue: there is no collapse of the wave function. Bell’s theorem is not about non-locality. There is no spooky action at a distance. And Quantum Mechanics is about measuring quantities at the microscopic scales and in doing so, these quantities are altered. So what we get is partial knowledge. But in spite of that obstacle, we still get a theory of reality with considerable success.

## ARE THE LAWS OF PHYSICS WEIRD? It was Nima Arkani-Hamed who once said, “…take the laws of physics and push them to their absolute limits…” An alternative is to go back to square one and re-examine our fundamental assumptions. It is that logic that led me to uncover the assumption underlying Galileo’s Law of Inertia, an assumption that infiltrated undetected into Einstein’s theory of General Relativity. The same logic led me to uncover four major misunderstandings that are at the base of the Einstein-Bohr disagreement on the interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, a long history mired into paradoxes, misconstructions and confusion which culminated into Bell’s theorem, itself deeply misunderstood. Lastly a toy model of a universe of bouncing balls that helped me to discover a new law of kinematics. The logic behind that new law brings new insights into Thermodynamics, Relativity and Quantum Field theory. Part of this book that I wrote is to dispel the notion that the laws of physics are weird. The other part is to present them as basically logical. I can only write this with humility and gratefulness that I arrived late in my life at this junction when logic spurred on this creativity in my mind. I can only hope it will help all those who are serious about solving our problems on a rational basis, and not let feelings override rational thoughts. As humans, we are all prone to fall into the trap of irrational fears and pervasive hate that beset so many in a world awash with disinformation. My sincere wish is that this book will instill in you a new hope.